History

Historical information about Uralsk

The first mention of the existence of the city on the site of modern Uralsk belongs to the early Middle Ages. However, confirmation of written information and cartographic sources the results of archaeological excavations took place only in 2001, when 12 kilometers from the city was found a settlement, dated XIII - XV centuries. The medieval town was conditionally named by archaeologists as ''Zhayik" in honor of the native Kazakh name of the river.

Long-term studies have shown that it was a large military-administrative and trade - craft town appeared during amplification of the Golden Horde in the XIII - XIV centuries and functioned as the center of the ulus ownership in the system of this state. An area, where clear traces of development can be found is about 8 ha., in general, together with the necropolis the investigated area is about 300 hectares. Numerous residential estates, sauna - hammam, kilns, outbuildings were revealed in this town. In two kilometers distance to the west fort there is  a city cemetery on the top of Svistun  (Whistler) mountain, - a necropolis, where numerous burials were discovered, related to the ancient settlement. A special place is occupied by two large mausoleum, the remains of the tower and traces of other buildings.

City has existed as long as there was a strong military and political power. The collapse of the Golden Horde, and then the Nogai Khanate led to an abrupt halt of trade and handicraft production. The city gradually lost its importance. A role in its ruin and destruction played lootings, raids of free and armed men rushed into the marginal zone.

Habitable areas and compliance to local requirements to protect led to the choice of this place by the Cossacks, who sought refuge and a place for permanent habitation on the banks of the Urals. Since the XVI century, there is a small military settlement, which became in the middle of XIX century, one of the largest cities in the Urals. Development and establishment of the city at this stage is connected with the Yaitsky, Ural Cossacks, which was formed and developed itself alongside with Yaitsky town.

Now this area of the city is called "Kurenei", from the word kuren that means Cossack house. In 1773-1775, the Yaik Cossacks became the nucleus of the peasant war led by Yemelyan Pugachev. The tsarist government brutally suppressed the uprising led by E.Pugachev. To erase the memory of the people in the scenes of peasant rebellion, by order of Catherine II Yaik river was renamed the Ural, and the Yaik town was named as Uralsk.

The development of Uralsk as a city begins with the administrative and territorial reforms of 1868, when Uralsk province was formed. Since that time, the city became the administrative, economic and cultural center of the West Kazakhstan region. And Uralsk itself now becomes a city - with paved streets, sturdy, beautiful stone houses, with well-developed trade and with the industrial and transport infrastructure, with a variety of institutions of culture, education, and medicine. Population Uralsk becomes multinational and has different status people as a result of migration of the Russian-Ukrainian peasantry and migration of settled Kazakhs. The main reason for the growth of the city has been actively developing economic ties of Uralsk – firstly, its inclusion into all-Russia market, and then, nurturing a single system of social and economic relations between the steppe and the City.

This situation persists in Uralsk until 1917, when as a result of the February and then the October Revolution, there is a collapse of the Russian Empire.

After the downfall of the autocracy, and then of the Provisional Government, with the establishment of Soviet power, the Soviet stage in the life of Uralsk begins.

The tragedy of the civil war, famine in 1921 - 1922's, the collectivization in 30's resulted in numerous casualties and losses. The city has changed. New look - the image of the workman of the city entrenched during the Great Patriotic War, when military units were formed here  and 14 industrial enterprises, 20 military hospitals were evacuated from the central regions of the USSR. During the post-war recovery of the economy in the period of the virgin epic led to the growth of agricultural sector.

Great changes in the formation of Uralsk as a modern multi-storey city occurred in 70-80's. Construction of new industrial plants, development of natural resources, the influx of new residents and the rapid population growth has dramatically changed the city. Uralsk became a modern city on the improvement, the standard of living and comfort. Population during this period increased by 2.5 times.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union a new, modern stage in the history of Uralsk has begun, which dates back to 1991, since the establishment of an independent sovereign state - the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Uralsk always attracted creative individuals. Here in October of 1833 lived A.S Pushkin, who was collecting historical materials about Pugachev rebellion. Also many great scholars such as V.I. Dahl, V.A. Zhukovsky, L.N. Tolstoy, V.G. Korolenko, M.A. Sholokhov had visited this city on the river Ural.

One of the bright moments of Kazakhstani statehood establishment is directly linked with our region - activities of Alash Orda. B. Karatayev, M. Dulatov, A.Baitursynov, J. Dosmukhamedov - all of these representatives of the Kazakh intelligentsia expressed ideas of the liberal and democratic direction.

Cisurals - the birthplace of the great composers: Kurmangazy Dauletkerei, Mukhit, Dina, prominent artists such as Khadisha Bukeeva, Rosa Dzhamanova, Garifulla Kurmangaliyev, poets and writers like Hamza Esenzhanov, Tair Zharokov, Kadyr Myrzaliyev, Sagingali Seitov, Zhuban Moldagaliyev and many other prominent personalities.

The town is located on the border between Europe and Asia. Favorable geographical location of the city plays an important role in the economic development of the city, and also opens up for its residents great prospects for the future in connection with the operation of the Customs Union and the further development of integration processes in the region.

Transport goods flows from Europe, Russia, China, Turkey and other countries pass through Uralsk, which contributes to the development of industry to a great extent, as well as small and medium-sized businesses.

Production, operating in Uralsk is known far outside the country. Ships for border protection and defense of the country, which travel through the Caspian Sea, are constructed in the Uralsk plant "Zenit". Among the well-known enterprises  we can name such ones as JSC "Uralskagroremmash", specializing in the production of fire and special equipment for municipal services, JSC "ZKMK", producing high-tech equipments for the production and transportation of oil and gas, and many others who have managed to convert their products, conducting technological modernization.

Every year in the city the number of private entrepreneurs significantly increased, private business is becoming very attractive for the thousands of people, and that means there are more job opportunities as well as tax revenue increase, which ultimately is beneficial for improving the welfare of citizens and the appearance of the city.

The positive dynamics of development of the city, of course, leads to an increase in its population: over the last 12 years the number of residents increased by almost a third, approaching to three hundred thousand mark. By 2030 the number is expected to reach almost half a million.

Uralsk is a city with a rich past and a promising future, that has great potential for development.